ROMANIA AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY
Nicolae Klepper
Hippocrene Books, Inc., New York, 2002
ISBN 0-7818-0935-5


ROMANIA
AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY
NICOLAE KLEPPER

"An insightful and much-needed synthesis addressed to all those who want to understand Romanian history. politics, culture, and society."
—Professor Vladimir Tismaneanu, University of Maryland, author of Stalinism for All
    Seasons: A Political History of Romanian Communism

As a country, Romania has only been in existence since 1859, but the history of its people stretches back to the late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age, to the Geto-Dacians and the Romans. This concise yet thorough narrative tells the fascinating story of the evolution of the Romanians, the creation of the Romanian Principalities, their struggle against empire-building powers, and their eventual unification to form the state of Romania. Many chapters begin with a section called "Perspective," which provides context for Romanian history by describing events occurring simultaneously in other parts of Europe. The book's engaging, accessible format features over eighty illustrations, maps, and charts. It is ideal for the student, traveler, or generally curious reader.

NICOLAE KLEPPER was born in Bucharest, Romania. He moved to America with his parents at the outbreak of World War II. After obtaining engineering and business degrees, he worked and lived in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. Klepper's desire to make his native country better known to the world led to his first book, Taste of Romania: Its Cookery and Glimpses of Its History, Folklore, Art, Literature and Poetry (Hippocrene Books, 1997). Now retired, Klepper lives in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Cover photo courtesy of Nicolae Klepper Triumphal Arch, Bucharest.

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Contents

Illustrations
Foreword
Acknowledgments Introduction
Pronunciation Guide

CHAPTER 1 Romanian Lands in Antiquity
Stone Age
Bronze Age
     Indo-Europeans
     Thracians
Iron Age
     Early Geto-Dacians
     Greek City-States
     Geto-Dacians from 650
B.C. to A.D. 106

CHAPTER 2 Dacia as a Roman Province (106 to 271)
Roman Victory
Province of Dacia and Its Surroundings Life in Dacia Felix
Romanization of the Dacians
Withdrawal of the Romans from Dacia

CHAPTER 3 Into and Out of the Dark Ages (Second–Fourteenth Centuries)
Perspective Question of Identity
Millennium of Invasions
     Avars
     Slavs and Petchenegs
     Bulgars
     Cumans
     Tatars (Tartars)
From Daco-Romans to Romanians
     Language
     Religion
Road to Statehood
     Transylvania, Banat, Criana, and Marumure
     Wallachia
     Moldavia
     Dobrogea

CHAPTER 4 The Romanian Principalities—First 300 Years (Fourteenth–Sixteenth Centuries)
Perspective
Transylvania
Wallachia
     Mircea the Old
     Alexander Aldea
     Vlad Dracul
     Vlad III Dracula
     Tightening of Ottoman Control
     Michael the Brave
Moldavia
     Alexander the Good
     Stephen the Great
A Short-Lived Union

CHAPTER 5 The Romanian Principalities (1601 to 1821)
Perspective
Transylvania
     More Attempts at Unification
         
Gabriel (Gabor) Bethlen
          The Rakoczi Family
     Hapsburg Rule
         
Act of the Union
          Peasant Revolt Under Horea, Closca, and Crisan
Wallachia and Moldavia
     Radu Serban
     Radu Mihnea
     Matthew (Matei) Basarab and Basil the Wolf (Vasile Lupu)
    
Cantacuzinos and Cantemirs
     Constantin Brancoveanu
Cultural Development
Phanariot Regime

CHAPTER 6 The Road To Unification (1821 to 1859)
Perspective
Transylvania
Wallachia and Moldavia
     End of the Phanariot Regime
     Russian Occupation
     Organic Regulations
     Revolutions of 1848
     Crimean War
     Union
Meanwhile, The Other Romanian Lands
     Bucovina
     Bessarabia
     Dobrogea

CHAPTER 7 The Road To Independence (1859 to 1881)
Perspective
     Revolutions that Transformed Europe
     Ottoman Empire
Alexandru Ioan Cuza
     Political Parties
     Reforms
Prince Carol of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen

CHAPTER 8 Into the Twentieth Century (1881 to 1918)
Perspective
     Ententes and Alliances
     World War I
     Russian Revolution
King Carol I
     Political Parties
     Peasant Revolts
     Neutrality
King Ferdinand I
World War I

CHAPTER 9 Cultural Development in the Nineteenth Century
Early Nineteenth Century
     Literature
     Art and Architecture
Late Nineteenth Century
     Literature
          Junimea Literary Society
          Mihai Eminescu
          Ion Creang
     Visual Arts
          Theodor Aman
          Nicolae Grigorescu
          Ioan Andreescu
     Music
       
Ciprian Porumbescu
          Eduard Caudella
          Other Major Musical Events
     Education and Historiography
     Architecture

CHAPTER 10 Greater Romania (1918 to 1940)
Perspective
     Aftermath of World War I
         
Austria
          Hungary
          Bulgaria
          Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
     Germany and the Road to World War II
Growing Pains: The Union of 1918
     Bessarabia
     Bucovina
     Transylvania, the Banat, Criana, and Maramure
King Ferdinand's Postwar Romania
The Regency
King Carol II
     National Peasant Party
     Carol H's Rise to Power
     National Liberal Party
     Legion of the Archangel Michael and the Iron Guard
     Nicolae Titulescu
     National Christian Party
     Royal Dictatorship

CHAPTER 11 The Antonescu Regime (1940 to 1944)
Perspective
Ion Antonescu
     National Legionary State
     Romania at War
Jews of Romania Jewish Holocaust
     Iasi Pogrom
     Romania as a Whole
     Bessarabia, Bucovina, and Northern Transylvania
End of the War

CHAPTER 12 Romania Under Communism (1944 to 1989)
Perspective
Romanian Communist Party
End of the War
Gheorghiu-Dej Era
     Transition
     Romanian People's Republic
     Metamorphosis of a Nation
     Education, Science, and Culture
     Romania's Emancipation from the Soviet Union
         
Industrialization
          Hungarian Uprising
          Sino–Soviet Discord
          Cuban Missile Crisis
          Romania's "Declaration of Independence"
          Nationalism and Autonomy
Ceauescu Regime
     Nicolae Ceauescu
     Foreign Policy
         
Prague Spring
          Treaty with West Germany
          Further Contacts with the West
     Trade and Industry
    
Domestic Policy
         
Ceauescu's Rise and Prominence
          Ceauescu's Decline and Downfall
Jews of Romania under Communism

CHAPTER 13 Cultural Development in the Twentieth Century
Early Twentieth Century
     Literature
     Visual Arts Music
     Architecture
The Interwar Years
     Literature
          Mihail Sadoveanu
          Liviu Rebreanu
          George Toparceanu
     Visual Arts
     Music
     Architecture
Late Twentieth Century
     Literature and Visual Arts
     Music
     Architecture
          Communist Period
         
Post-Revolution

EPILOGUE Post-Communist Romania
Transition
Ion Iliescu
First Post-Communist Elections
Unrest, Demonstrations, and Violence
Iliescu Reelected
Opposition Wins
2000 Elections: The Return of Iliescu to Power

Historical Chronology
Bibliography
Index
About the Author